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中考英语:走出“主谓一致”的三大误区

[05-26]   来源:http://www.inkjetremix.com  学习指导   阅读:289

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⊙ 重庆市巴川中学  潘云芬

    句子的核心是谓语动词,谓语动词的确定取决于主语。根据句子含义和结构认准主语是掌握主谓一致的必要条件;弄清主谓一致的语言规则和习惯是掌握主谓一致的充分条件,要正确使用主谓一致,两个条件缺一不可,但同学们往往会走入以下三大误区。

    误区一 误认主语

    1. 倒装句
    ①Between the two buildings are a big tree. (×)
    ②Between the two buildings is a big tree. (√)
    【解析】  第①句谓语动词使用are,错误地认为the two buildings是该句的主语,但实际上是介词between的宾语,一起构成介词短语,而介词短语不能充当主语。该句是一个倒装句,真正主语是a big tree。因此第②句正确。
    特别提醒  倒装句的常见结构:副词/介词短语+谓语+主语
    2. 主语之后带有介词短语
    ①The fruit like apples , oranges are good for our health. (×)
    ②The fruit like apples , oranges is good for our health. (√)
    【解析】  第①句误认为apples , oranges是主语,因此谓语动词用are,而实际上the fruit才是该句的主语,like apples , oranges是介词短语作后置定语修饰the fruit。该句译为“像苹果、桔子之类的水果对我们的身体是有好处的”。因此第②句是正确的。
    特别提醒  类似的结构有:主语+with / like / except / but / together with / as well as . . . ,谓语动词应与主语一致,而与介词短语之后的名词无关。
    3. one of . . . + 名词复数或复数代词
    ①There are twenty boys in our class. One of the boys are from Canada. (×)
    ②There are twenty boys in our class. One of the boys is from Canada. (√)
    【解析】  one of the boys的中心词是one,因此谓语动词用单数,造成第①句错误的原因主要是把the boys当成了该句的主语。
    4. 定语从句
    ①I like the photos which was taken in Beijing. (×)
    ②I like the photos which were taken in Beijing. (√)
    【解析】  which were taken in Beijing是一个定语从句,用于修饰先行词the photos,而which本身就代替先行词the photos。因此谓语动词要用复数,造成第①句错误的原因是没有弄清楚关系词which的实质,只是从形式上看它是单数。
    特别提醒  定语从句中的谓语动词应该与先行词保持一致。

    误区二 被主语的表象迷惑

    1. 看似复数却表单数概念
    ①Maths are my favourite subject. (×)
    ②Maths is my favourite subject. (√)
    【解析】  maths本身是一个以“s”结尾的单词,而不是一个复数名词,表示单数概念“数学”这一学科,因此第②句正确。
    类似的有:physics , news , politics . . .
    2. 看似单数却表复数概念
    ①The police is searching for the robbers. (×)
    ②The police are searching for the robbers. (√)
    【解析】  the police译为“警方”,表示复数概念,而不是表示“那个警察”,因此第②句正确,类似的词有:people , the + 形容词,the + 姓 + family等均表复数概念。
    3. 名词的单复数同形
    ①There are a little sheep eating grass on the hill. Can you see it? (×)
    ②There is a little sheep eating grass on the hill. Can you see it? (√)
    【解析】  sheep是一个单复数形式相同的名词,由于sheep之前用的a little修饰,加上Can you see it中的it指代单数,因此a little sheep译为“一只小绵羊”,因此第②句正确。如果将原题改为:There ________ (be) a few sheep eating grass on the hill. Can you see them?那又会怎么样呢。
    特别提醒  类似的单复数形式相同的词还有fish, Chinese, Japanese等,要根据句子的含义和结构暗示来判断其单复数。
    4. 集合名词
    ①Their family is very happy. Now their family is watching TV. (×)
    ②Their family is very happy. Now their family are watching TV. (√)
    【解析】  family是一个集合名词,表示整体概念时谓语用单数,表示个体概念时谓语用复数。该句译为“他们全家很幸福,现在全家人正在看电视”。因此第一个family表示整体概念,译为“家庭”,第二个family表示个体概念,译为“家人”,第②句正确。
    特别提醒  类似的还有group, class, team等既可表单数也可表复数。

    误区三 误用语言规则

    1. 表示时间、距离、金钱、重量、数量等名词作主语
    ①Ten years are quite a long time. (×)
    ②Ten years is quite a long time. (√)
    【解析】  表示时间、距离、金钱、重量、数量等名词的复数作主语时看作一个整体,谓语动词要用单数,容易错误理解为复数而出现第①句的错误。
    2. 由and连接的并列主语
    ①The twentieth lesson and last lesson are very easy for students. (×)
    ②The twentieth lesson and last lesson is very easy for students. (√)
    【解析】  the twentieth lesson and last lesson是表示同一概念,译为“第20课即最后一课”,因此谓语动词应该用单数。同学们容易错误理解“第20课和最后一课”,如果表示两课,应该表达为“the twentieth lesson and the last lesson”。
    特别提醒  由and连接的并列主语表示同一概念时,谓语动词用单数,表示不同的概念时谓语动词用复数。
    3. 就近原则
    ①Neither you nor he have been to Beijing. (×)
    ②Neither you nor he has been to Beijing. (√)
    【解析】  neither . . . nor连接的并列主语(you , he)虽然表示两个人,但根据语言规则,当它连接并列主语的时候,谓语动词根据就近原则,该由he决定,因此第②句正确。
    特别提醒  类似的还有either . . . or, not only . . . but also, not . . . but, 以及there be之后的并列主语,谓语动词的确定都根据“就近原则”。
    4. this kind of, a piece of, this pair of等短语作主语
    ①This pair of trousers are very new, but Tom’s trousers are very old. (×)
    ②This pair of trousers is very new, but Tom’s trousers are very old. (√)
    【解析】  trousers作主语时,谓语动词用复数,但当它被this pair of修饰时谓语动词由pair的单复数确定。因此第②句正确。
    特别提醒  this kind of, a piece of, a bag of, a box of等,这类短语作主语时谓语动词的单复数由这些短语中的名词决定,而与它们所修饰的名词无关。
    5. the rest of,half of等短语作主语
    ①Half of the students have finished most of the work. The rest of it are very difficult. (×)
    ②Half of the students have finished most of the work. The rest of it is very difficult. (√)
    【解析】  根据句意和句子结构可以判断the rest of it中的it,指the work,而work是不可数名词,因此第②句正确。
    特别提醒  all of, most of, half of, the rest of,以及a lot of, some, any+名词作主语时,要根据后面的名词确定谓语动词的单复数。
    6. 一句话提示
    ①合成不定代词(如something,anybody等)作主语,谓语动词用单数;
    ②动名词、不定式、从句作主语时,谓语动词用单数;
    ③a number of + 名词(复)作主语,谓语用复数,the number of + 名词(复)作主语,谓语用单数;
    ④none of . . . 作主语时,谓语动词可用单数,也可用复数。

金题精练
    根据句意,从所给出的选项中选出最佳答案。
    1. The news _____ very worth listening to.
    A. be    B. is    C. are    D. am
    2. —_____ this pair of glasses yours?
—No. My glasses _____ on the desk.
    A. Is, is    B. Are, is    C. Is, are    D. Are, are
    3. The old _____ taken good care of in China now.
    A. was      B. are     C. is     D. were
    4. Nobody except the twins ___ to Hongkong before.
    A. have been              B. have gone
    C. has been               D. has gone
    5. —What’s on the plate?
—There _____ some rice on it.
    A. is     B. are     C. has     D. have
    6. Five years _____ since we met last.
    A. have passed          B. has past
    C. has passed           D. have pasted
    7. Here _____ some flowers for you.
    A. is     B. are     C. has      D. have
    8. There __________ a number of teachers, but the number of women teachers ________ only thirty.
    A. are, are   B. are, is   C. is, are   D. is, is
    9. Not only my uncle but also my parents _______ I am right.
    A. think   B. thank   C. thinks   D. are thinking
    10. Doing morning exercises _____ good for our health.
    A. be      B. are     C. is      D. am
    11. Everyone likes people who _____ ready to help others.
    A. is      B. are    C. being    D. was
    12. The Smith family _____ making dumplings in the kitchen.
    A. is      B. are     C. has been    D. can
    13. One third of the population in our city ______ farmers in the past.
    A. are     B. were      C. is      D. was
    14. The headmaster and the teacher ______ coming to us now.
    A. are      B. is       C. will      D. am
    15. Tom as well as his friends _____ skating every Saturday.
    A. are       B. is      C. go      D. goes
    (Keys: 1. B  2. C  3. B  4. C  5. A  6. C  7. B  8. B  9. A  10. C  11. B  12. B  13. B  14. A  15. D)


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