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2017年考研英语全真模拟试题及其答案详解(1)A

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正文: Section Ⅰ Use of English

  Directions:

  Read the following text. Choose the best word(s) for each numbered blank and mark A, B, C or D on ANSWER SHEET 1. (10 points)

  Driving through snowstorm on icy roads for long distances is a most nerve-racking experience. It is a paradox that the snow, coming __1__ gently, blowing gleefully in a high wind, all the while __2__ down a treacherous carpet, freezes the windows,__3__ the view. The might of automated man is__4__ . The horses, the powerful electrical systems, the deep-tread tires, all go __5__ nothing. One minute the road feels __6__, and the next the driver is sliding over it, light as a__7__, in a panic, wondering what the heavy trailer trucks coming up__8__the rear are going to do. The trucks are like __9__ when you have to pass them, not at sixty or seventy __10__ you do when the road is dry, but at twenty-five and thirty. __11__ their engines sound unnaturally loud. Snow, slush and__12__ of ice spray from beneath the wheels, obscure the windshield, and rattle __13__your car. Beneath the wheels there is plenty of __14__ for you to slide and get mashed to a pulp. Inch __15__ inch you move up, past the rear wheels, the center wheels, the cab, the front wheels, all__16__too slowly by. Straight ahead you continue,__17__ to cut over sharply would send you into a slip,__18__in front of the vehicle. At last, there is__19__enough, and you creep back over, in front of the truck now, but__20__the sound of its engine still thundering in your ears.

  1. [A] up [B] off [C] down [D] on

  2. [A] lies [B] lays [C] settles [D] sends

  3. [A] blocks [B] strikes [C] puffs [D] cancels

  4. [A] muted [B] discovered [C] doubled [D] undervalued

  5. [A] for [B] with [C] into [D] from

  6. [A] comfortable [B] weak [C] risky [D] firm

  7. [A] loaf [B] feather [C] leaf [D] fog

  8. [A] beneath [B] from [C] under [D] beyond

  9. [A] dwarfs [B] giants [C] patients [D] princesses

  10. [A] what [B] since [C] as [D] that

  11. [A] So [B] But [C] Or [D] Then

  12. [A] flakes [B] flocks [C] chips [D] cakes

  13. [A] onto [B] against [C] off [D] along

  14. [A] snow [B] earth [C] room [D] ice

  15. [A] by [B] after [C] for [D] with

  16. [A] climbing [B] crawling [C] winding [D] sliding

  17. [A] meanwhile [B] unless [C] whereas [D] for

  18. [A] sheer [B] mostly [C] rarely [D] right

  19. [A] might [B] distance [C] air [D] power

  20. [A] with [B] like [C] inside [D] upon

  答案

  1.C 2.B 3.A 4.A 5.A 6.D 7.B 8.C 9.B 10.C

  11.D 12.C 13.C 14.C 15.A 16.D 17.D 18.D 19.B 20.A

总体分析   本文描述了在冰雪覆盖的路面上开车的经历。文章首句为主题句,概括了这种经历的特点是"令人非常紧张"。第二至四句分别介绍了下雪带来的隐患和机器变得没有多大用处。从第五句到文章最后则描述了在这种不利条件下和大卡车一同行驶的紧张经历。

  试题精解

  1.[精解] 本题考查短语动词辨析。空格处填入的副词与动词come搭配,其分词形式作后置定语,修饰限定主语the snow。come down指"(雨、雪等)落下,降落",如:The rain came down in torrents.(大雨滂沱。)因此[C]符合文意,在文中指"大雪飘落"。

  come down也可意为"崩塌;(飞机)着陆;(价格、温度、比例)下降;下垂,向下延伸",如:The ceiling came down.(天花板塌了下来。)Gas is coming down in price.(煤气价格在下降。)come up意为"破土而出;升起;即将发生",如:The daffodils are just beginning to come up.(水仙花刚开始破土发芽。)watch the sun come up(观看日出)。Her birthday is coming up.(她的生日即将来临。)come off意为"能被去掉或除去;发生;(计划等)成功",如:That mark won't come off.(那污点去不掉。)Did the trip to Korea come off?(去韩国的事最后成了吗?)come on意为"改进,发展;开始",如:The project is coming on fine.(这项工程进展顺利。)I think there's rain coming on.(我看要下雨了。)

  2.[精解] 本题考查短语动词辨析。空格处填入的动词与down搭配,相当于及物动词,其主语是the snow,宾语是a treacherous carpet。lie down意为"躺下";lay down意为"放下;记下;拟定",如:lay down the arms/the rules(放下武器/制定规则);settle down意为"安下心来,定居";send down只能接sb.作宾语,意为"判某人入狱",如:He was sent down for ten years for armed robbery.(他因持械抢劫被判入狱十年。)因此[B]符合文意,意为"(大雪)吹落(一块毯子)"。

  3.[精解] 本题考查动词辨析。空格处填入的动词接the view作宾语,而且它与前面的2 down和freezes并列作谓语,其主语都是the snow。作及物动词时,block意为"堵塞,阻塞",如:to block the road(堵住了道路)。strike意为"撞击,打击,侵袭",如:The ship struck a rock.(船触礁了。)The area was struck by an outbreak of plague.(这个地区爆发了瘟疫。)puff意为"吸,抽,喷",如:to puff the cigar/smoke into sb.'s faces(抽雪茄/把烟往别人脸上喷)。cancel意为"取消"。能够和the view搭配的只有[A]block,表示"挡住视线"。

  4.[精解] 本题考查动词辨析。空格处填入的过去分词与is构成被动式的谓语,因此其动词的实际的宾语是the might(强大力量,威力)。mute意为"消除或减弱声音;减弱,缓解",如:mute the traffic noise/the criticism(减弱了车辆的噪音/委婉地提出批评)。discover意为"发现,发觉";double意为"加倍";undervalue意为"低估...之价值,看轻"。因此[A]符合文意,它与the might搭配,表示"威力减弱"。

  5.[精解] 本题考查固定短语。go for nothing相当于be in vain,意为"白费,毫无用处,毫无价值"。因此[A]正确,其他介词都不能与go和nothing构成搭配。

  6.[精解] 本题考查形容词辨析。feel是系动词,意为"摸起来,感觉起来",它常与形容词构成系表结构,如:The water feels warm.(这水摸起来很暖和。)本题中feel的主语是the road, 因此空格处的形容词应说明"道路"的特点。四个选项都可以修饰事物,comfortable一般指"(衣服、家具等)使人舒服的",如:The bed/these shoes are very comfortable.(这床/这双鞋子很舒服。)weak意为"不牢固的,易损坏的",如:The bridge is too weak to carry heavy traffic.(那座桥梁不太牢固,承受不住过多的车辆。)weak也可指"微弱的,隐约的",强调不容易被看到或听到,如:a weak light/sound(微弱的光线/声音)。risky意为"有危险或风险的",如:a risky investment(有风险的投资)。firm意为"坚固的,结实的,稳固的",如:No building can stand without firm foundations.(没有稳固的基础,建筑就不牢靠。)根据上下文,空格处的形容词应与下文"容易滑倒"相对照,因此[D]正确,强调道路"结实"。

  7.[精解] 本题考查英语语言习惯。英语和汉语中都有大量的比喻形式。有些比喻的喻体大不相同,如:spend money like water(挥金如土);有些则很相似,如:as firm as a rock(坚如磐石),as light as a feather(轻如鸿毛)。因此本题应选[B],文中用这个比喻形容"车子打滑时驾驶者失重的感受"。loaf意为"一条(面包)";leaf意为"树叶";fog意为"雾"。

  8.[精解] 本题考查介词辨析。空格所在部分wondering... 是个分词结构,在句中作状语,wondering的逻辑主语是the driver,逻辑宾语是what引导的宾语从句。该从句中,coming up... the rear也是一个分词短语,作从句主语trucks的后置定语。空格处填入介词,其宾语是the rear(后面、后边、后部),根据文意,表示"从后面"应选[C]from。beneath和under都表示"在......之下",beyond表示"在(或向)较远的一边",不符合逻辑。

  9.[精解] 本题考查根据上下文选择恰当的词。空格所在部分是一个比喻,说明卡车像什么。下文出现了两个when引导的状语从句的比较:路面干燥时的行驶速度为60或70,而此时的行驶速度为25和30。可见,文章在说明由于路面滑造成了行驶速度下降。根据逻辑推理,行驶缓慢时从大卡车旁开过花费的时间当然较长,因此它们看起来更像giants"巨人",而不是dwarfs"矮子",patients"病人"或princesses"公主"。因此[B]正确。

  10.[精解] 本题考查从句引导词。空格所在句子中存在比较,即,you have to pass them not... you do when the road is dry(路面滑时开车不像路面干燥时那样快),因此空格处填入的词应引导比较状语从句you do when... ,从句中do为上文动词pass的替代词。[C]as可用于比较结构,表示"像......一样,如同",如:He doesn't earn as much as I do.(他挣的钱不如我多。)因此[C]正确。what只能引导名词性从句,what you do表示"你做的事情";since一般引导时间状语从句,表示"从......以后,自......以来";that只能引导定语从句或名词性从句。

  11.[精解] 本题考查逻辑词辨析。空格处填入的词出现在句首,表示上文与空格所在句子之间的逻辑关系。then是副词,可用来引出额外的信息,意为"另外,还有;再者,而且",如:She's been very busy at work and then there was all that trouble with her son.(她工作一直很忙,另外还有儿子的一大堆麻烦事。)上文提到路面滑时从卡车旁开过的速度非常慢,本句则提到另一方面的问题是卡车的噪音非常大。因此[D]then正确,在文中意为"而且,此外"。其它选项:so表示因果关系;but表示转折关系;or表示选择关系。

  12.[精解] 本题考查名词辨析。空格处填入的名词作定语修饰ice。flake意为"小薄片",修饰snow时指"雪花",又如:dried onion flakes(干洋葱皮片);flock一般指"(羊或鸟)群"或"一大群(人)",如:a flock of sheep/children(羊群/一大群孩子);chip意为"碎屑,碎片,碎渣",如:chips of wood(碎木屑);cake作名词时指"蛋糕或饼状食物",作动词时意为"覆盖"。从下文可知,车轮子下溅出来的应是"雪、泥(slush)和碎冰渣",因此[C]最符合文意。

  13.[精解] 本题考查介词辨析。空格处填入的介词与动词rattle(象声词,"格格响,嘎嘎响")搭配,其宾语是your car,主语是上文的snow, slush and chips of ice。选项中,onto表示"(朝某处或某位置运动)向,朝",如:Move the books onto the second shelf.(把书移到第二层架子上。)against表示"逆着,与......相反"或"紧靠,倚",如:We were rowing against the current.(我们划船逆水而上。)lean against the wall(斜靠着墙)。off意为down or away from a place"从(某处落下)",如:I fell off the ladder.(我从梯子上跌了下来。)along意为"沿着,顺着",如:They walked slowly along the road.(他们沿着公路慢慢走)。根据句意,应是"雪、泥和碎冰渣溅到车上,又格格作响地从车上掉下来",因此[C]正确。

  14.[精解] 本题考查根据上下文选择恰当的词。四个选项都是常见的简单词汇,关键要根据句子含义进行选择。空格所在句子的结构是there is plenty of sth. for you to... ,其中不定式作结果状语,意为"轮子下有足够的......让你打滑并被碾成肉酱"。根据句子逻辑,应是"(足够的)空间",而非"雪","泥土"或"冰"。因此[C]正确。

  15.[精解] 本题考查英语成语。英语讲究对称美,其表现之一为成语排列形式上的对称美,即,以介词、连词(and或or)或动词为"对称轴",构成相同词、同词性的词、反义词或同类词的对称。本题inch by inch就是以介词by为"对称轴"构成的相同词(inch)的对称,意为"一点一点地"。类似结构的成语还有:head to head(交头接耳),word for word(逐词地),like for like(以牙还牙)。[A]为正确项。

  16.[精解] 本题考查动词辨析。空格处填入现在分词作句子状语,其逻辑主语是you。climb一般指"(向上)攀登,(吃力地向某处)爬",如:climb up the stairs(爬上了梯子),climb through the window(从窗口爬了出来)。crawl指"(向前,身体接近地面的)爬行",如:The baby is just starting to crawl.(宝宝刚开始会爬。)wind作不及物动词时,意为"(路,河等)蜿蜒,曲折而行",如:The path wound down to the beach.(这条小路弯弯曲曲通向海滩。)slide指"滑行,滑动"。根据句意,你(驾驶者)缓慢地从大卡车旁往前开,由于路面滑,只能是"慢慢地滑过"。因此[D]正确。

  17.[精解] 本题考查逻辑词辨析。空格前后是两个独立的分句,因此空格处需要填入一个连词。meanwhile为副词,意为"同时",放在句首时要么另起一句,要么与前一句用分号隔开,如:I went to college. Meanwhile, all my friends got well-paid jobs.(我上大学去了,那时我的朋友们全都找到了收入www.inkjetremix.com的工作。)[A]首先排除。其他几个词都可作连词,unless意为"除非",whereas常用于比较或对比两个事实,意为"然而,但是,尽管";for意为"因为"。根据句意,空格前后两个分句之间是因果关系,即,"你(驾驶者)继续笔直地往前开,因为突然超车抢道到卡车前面(cut over sharply)会使你的车滑倒",因此[D]正确。

  18.[精解] 本题考查副词辨析。空格处应填入一个副词,修饰介词短语in front of(在......前面)。sheer作副词时意为"垂直地,陡峭地",如:The cliffs rise sheer from the beach.(悬崖从海滩上拔地而起。)mostly意为"主要地,一般地",如:We're mostly out on Sundays.(我们星期天一般不在家。)rarely意为"罕有,很少,不常",如:We rarely agree on what to do.(我们很少在要做的事情上看法一致。)right意为"正好,恰好,直接地",如:Lee was standing right behind her.(李就站在她身后。)根据文意,[D]正确。

  19.[精解] 本题考查根据上下文选择恰当的词。四个选项的含义分别是might"力量",distance"距离",air"空气",power"力量,势力"。根据空格所在句子的含义,应选[B],表示"当有足够的车距时,你才慢慢地挪到卡车的前方"。

  20.[精解] 本题考查介词辨析。空格前的but为并列连词,连接句子中的两个状语成分,即,in front of... 和 the sound thundering。"with+名词+分词"可构成独立主格结构,作状语。因此[A]正确。其它项作介词时,like意为"像,如同",inside意为"在......里面",upon意为"在......上"。

  核心词汇或超纲词汇

  (1)nerve-racking (a.) intensely distressing or irritating to the nerves令神经高度紧张或极受刺激的

  (2)gleefully愉快地

  (3)high wind强风

  (4)treacherous(修饰人)不可信任的,背叛的,奸诈的;(修饰物)有潜在危险的。如:The ice on the roads made driving conditions treacherous.(路上的冰对驾车构成隐患。)

  (5)all the while一直,始终,如:We waited for three hours, all the while hoping that someone would come and fetch us.(我们等了三小时,一直希望有人会来接我们。)

 全文翻译

  在暴风雪中长途驱车于结冰的路上会是一种令人极度紧张的经历。矛盾的是,雪一面轻轻地飘落,在强风中愉快地吹着,一面又铺成危险的毯子,封冻车窗,挡住视线。机器的力量被减弱了。马、强有力的电子系统、深胎面的轮胎都毫无用处。一分钟前路面还很结实,一分钟后司机就在上面打滑,轻飘飘地,处于恐慌之中,想着从后面突然出现的笨重的挂了拖车的卡车会干出什么事情来。当你不得不开车经过这些卡车时,它们就像巨人一般。这时你行驶的速度不是当路面干燥时的60或70,而是25和30。并且它们的引擎听起来极其刺耳。雪、泥和冰渣滓从轮子下喷洒出来,使挡风玻璃变得模糊不清,然后格格作响地从车上掉下。卡车轮子下的空间很大,足以让你滑进去并被碾成肉酱。你一点点的往前挪动,经过卡车的后轮,中间的轮子,驾驶室,前轮,所有这一切都是极其缓慢地滑过去的。你继续笔直地往前开,因为突然超车抢道到卡车前面会使你的车滑倒,正好倒在大卡车的前面。最后终于和卡车有了一段距离了,你才慢慢地往后挪,挪到另外一车道上,现在你行使在卡车的前面了,但是引擎的声音仍然震耳欲聋.


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