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  Section II Use of English
  Many theories concerning the causes of juvenile delinquency (crimes committed by young people) focus either on the individual or on society as the major contributing influence. Theories __21__ on the individual suggest that children engage in criminal behavior __22__ they were not sufficiently penalized for previous misdeeds or that they have learned criminal behavior through __23__ with others. Theories focusing on the role of society suggest that children commit crimes in __24__ to their failure to rise above their socioeconomic status, __25__ as a rejection of middle-class values.
  Most theories of juvenile delinquency have focused on children from disadvantaged families, __26__ the fact that children from wealthy homes also commit crimes. The latter may commit crimes __27__ lack of adequate parental control. All theories, however, are tentative and are __28__ to criticism.
  Changes in the social structure may indirectly __29__ juvenile crime rates. For example, changes in the economy that __30__ to fewer job opportunities for youth and rising unemployment __31__ make gainful employment increasingly difficult to obtain. The resulting discontent may in __32__ lead more youths into criminal behavior.
  Families have also __33__ changes these years. More families consist of one parent households or two working parents; __34__, children are likely to have less supervision at home __35__ was common in the traditional family __36__. This lack of parental supervision is thought to be an influence on juvenile crime rates. Other __37__ causes of offensive acts include frustration or failure in school, the increased __38__ of drugs and alcohol, and the growing __39__ of child abuse and child neglect. All these conditions tend to increase the probability of a child committing a criminal act, __40__ a direct causal relationship has not yet been established.
  21. [A] acting[B] relying[C] centering[D] commenting
  22. [A] before[B] unless[C] until[D] because
  23. [A] interactions[B] assimilation[C] cooperation[D] consultation
  24. [A] return[B] reply[C] reference[D] response
  25. [A] or[B] but rather[C] but[D] or else
  26. [A] considering[B] ignoring[C] highlighting[D] discarding
  27. [A] on[B] in[C] for[D] with
  28. [A] immune[B] resistant[C] sensitive[D] subject
  29. [A] affect[B] reduce[C] check[D] reflect
  30. [A] point[B] lead[C] come[D] amount
  31. [A] in general[B] on average[C] by contrast[D] at length
  32. [A] case[B] short[C] turn[D] essence
  33. [A] survived[B] noticed[C] undertaken[D] experienced
  34. [A] contrarily[B] consequently[C] similarly[D] simultaneously
  35. [A] than[B] that[C] which[D] as
  36. [A] system[B] structure[C] concept[D] heritage
  37. [A] assessable[B] identifiable[C] negligible[D] incredible
  38. [A] expense[B] restriction[C] allocation[D] availability
  39. [A] incidence[B] awareness[C] exposure[D] popularity
  40. [A] provided[B] since[C] although[D] supposing


  21. 答案:[C] centering
  分析:本题是典型的“复现”题,即作者在文章不同的地方使用相同或者不同的词汇表达相同或类似的意思。本文的第一句话中(Many theories concerning the causes of juvenile delinquency (crimes committed by young people) focus either on the individual or on society as the major contributing influence),已经使用了词组:。 focus on(关注于,侧重于,着重于)解释理论侧重于的内容;而且本段落的最后一句话在解释另一种理论所侧重于的内容时,又一次使用了focus on (Theories focusing on the role of society……), 所以,作者为本题已经给出了明确的已知提示线索―“focus on”,从4个选项中选出centering on表达与focus on同样意思即可。
  22. 答案:[D] because
  分析:本题是考查上下句逻辑关系衔接的连词题,从前后两句来看一定是因果关系,后面的句子(they were not sufficiently penalized for previous misdeeds or……)是对前一句青少年为什么犯罪的解释,只能选择[D] because。如果选择了其他三个选项,上下句的逻辑关系就不通了。
  23. 答案:[A] interactions
  分析:本题明显考查词义的辨析,考查考生对这4个名词意义和用法的深入理解。在4个选项中最具有干扰性的是 [B] assimilation(吸收,使同化),这个词不要理解为“模仿”,其准确意义用英文解释为:(to become part of a group or society etc., or to make someone or something become part of a group or society), 即改变成为什么的一部分,即“同化。而从本题所在句子提供的信息是表示:青少年之所以犯罪的途径是什么,介词through 表达是就是通过什么途径,本填空的所要选的名词即表达这个途径。青少年做“learned criminal behavior”这个动作显然不可能是通过“成为其他人的一部分”这个途径。而[A] interactions 这个词的意思是(activities of talking and doing things with other people)在这里表达了“与别人互动的意思,这样与前边青少年“learned criminal behavior” 这个动作就形成合理搭配了。选项 [C] cooperation(合作)以及 [D] consultation(咨询,商量)与本题题意不相符合。
  24. 答案:[D] response
  分析:本题首先可以看出与前边的22题的选项“because”形成复现呼应,即本题也是选择一个表示“青少年犯罪的原因是什么”。因此,排除 in return to (回报) 以及 in reference to (关于,有关,注意crimes in reference to 表示 “有关……的犯罪”);in reply to 表示“对……的回答或回复”,reply 在这里表示的意思很窄,仅限定为“回答或回复”,因此只有in response to表达出了“对……。的回应、反应,在这里可以引申“由于或者出于”的意思,表示一种因果的关系。
  25. 答案:[A] or
  分析:本题很简单,从逻辑关系判断,本题所连接的两个成分是并列地表达“青少年犯罪的原因”。而且,作者在前边解释第一个理论时所用的句型中(……they were not sufficiently penalized for previous misdeeds; or that they have learned criminal behavior through……)已经使用过了“or”,上下两个句子的结构实际是对等的,找到对应关系也很容易选出[A] or。
  26. 答案:[B] ignoring
  分析:对于本题考生只要能正确理解上下句的提示线索,就很简单。前边的线索是:大多数的理论把青少年犯罪归咎于他们来自贫困家庭(disadvantaged families),后面的线索:来自富有家庭(wealthy homes)的孩子也会犯罪;这就说明前面的这个理论是没有考虑后面的这个事实(fact)的。能准确表达这个意思的词只能是[B] ignoring;[D] discarding(丢弃)在这里与宾语fact的搭配意思不合适;而[A] considering(考虑)以及[C] highlighting(使显著)与题意不符合。
  27. 答案:[C] for
  分析:本题所在的这句话(The latter may commit crimes (27) ____ lack of adequate parental control)中的“The latter”指代的是上句中的“children from wealthy homes”,所以本题仍然是选择一个“青少年犯罪原因”表因果关系的词,显然是[C] for。
  28. 答案:[D] subject
  分析:本题所在的句子(All theories, however, are tentative and are (28) ____ to criticism)实际上是进行一个小的总结,即对前边提到的理论下一个定义。因此本题的提示线索很明显:前边文章中已经明确指出了各种理论存在缺陷,因此这些theories与criticism(批评)之间的关系一定是be subject to “易受到批评的”。选项[A] immune(免疫于,即不会受到批评)和[B] resistant(抗拒)都不符合提示线索。[C] sensitive(对……敏感)这个意思与本题无关。
  29. 答案:[A] affect
  分析:本题所在的句子是本段的首句,而且从上下文的关系可以判断出它是本段的总述句,本题可以应用“总分结构对照法”,也就是说本题所要选的这个动词是对下面分述的总结。本段的分述部分明确地指出“经济变化引起的失业率增加从而导致犯罪率的上升”,即都是围绕着“社会变化如何引起犯罪率的变化”。把握了以上提示线索,本题的答案一定是[A] affect(影响)。其他选项[B] reduce(减少)以及[C] chock(稳定)在文章中都没有已知提示线索的支持;[D] reflect(反映)表达不出对本句与和下面分述部分的呼应关系,也造成本句的意思不清。
  30. 答案:[B] lead
  分析:本题考查固定短语的意义和用法辨析。首先根据本题所在句子提供的信息很容易看出前边的“changes in the economy” 导致或者造成了后边“fewer job opportunities for youth and rising unemployment”局面的出现,表达这个意思的短语是“lead to”;其他选项均不能准确表达此意思。
  31. 答案:[A] in general
  分析:本题从题意上只有选择[A] in general(总体上)才合适。[B] on average(平均地)、[C] by contrast(相反地)、[D] at length(详细地)均不符合题意。
  32. 答案:[C] turn
  分析:本题从4个短语所表达的意思来看: “in case”表示“万一”、“in short ” 表示“简而言之”、“in essence ”表示“本质上、实质上”、“in turn ” 表示“依次”;而从本句与前边句子的衔接关系来看,显然只有in turn与本句话的意思可以搭配,即经济波动导致失业增加,造成工作难找,由此引起的不满情绪就依次造成犯罪率上升;
  33. 答案:[D] experienced
  分析:本题考查谓语动词,主要从主语(主谓搭配)和宾语(动宾搭配)两个线索来判断。只有[D] experienced changes既符合动宾搭配,也符合题意,即家庭在这些年也经历了变化;选项[A] survived(幸存,幸免于)以及[B] noticed (注意到)所表达的意义与本题无关;而[C] undertaken(承担)不与changes构成动宾搭配;
  34. 答案:[B] consequently
  分析:从本题所涉及的上下句的逻辑关系判断一定是因果关系,因此[B] consequently(结果地)是最佳选项;其他选项[A] contrarily(相反地)、[C] similarly(相似地)以及[D] simultaneously(同时地)不能表达因果关系。
  35. 答案:[A] than
  分析:从本题所涉及的上下句所提示的信息来看:(children are likely to have less supervision at home (35) ____ was common in the traditional family),如果选择[B] that或者[C] which就表示 less supervision在传统的家庭中是common,这显然是不正确的;而选项[D] as不符合语法;其实从less以及后边的common,traditional family等几个提示线索的呼应关系就可以判断出是前后“比较”的关系,所以最佳选项是[A] than。
  36. 答案:[B] structure
  分析:从本段落的第二句话(More families consist of one parent households or two working parents)可以看出这里是有关“家庭结构”的问题,因此本题应该选择[B] structure;而family system指家庭制度。
  37. 答案:[B] identifiable
  分析:本题考查形容词,主要看与后边名词causes of offensive acts的修饰搭配。而且从上下文的意义来看,本文是在列举造成青少年犯罪的因素。据此,应该只有[B] identifiable(可被识别出的)符合题意;其他选项[A] assessable(可被评估的)、[C]negligible(可被忽视的)以及[D] incredible(令人难以置信的)均不符合题意。
  38. 答案:[D] availability
  分析:本题所考查的名词increased (38) ____ of drugs and alcohol是造成青少年犯罪的一个因素,所以[B] restriction(限制)可以马上排除;而[A] expense(花费)以及[C] allocation(分配)表达不出“毒品和酒是越来越容易得到”这个概念,所以 [D] availability(可得到性)最合适。
  39. 答案:[A] incidence
  分析:本题也是考查一个名词,列举造成青少年犯罪的因素。[A] incidence (发生率)显然最为合适。其他选项[B] awareness(意识)、[C] exposure(曝光) 以及[D] popularity(流行、受喜欢)在意义上都不合理。
  40. 答案:[C] although

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